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Likewise, Glatthorn (l987) offered that beliefs and behaviors of each ethnic group or geographical area were developed in order to foster and teach children specific skills necessary for the transition from childhood to adulthood, thereby sustaining or advancing the convictions of that culture. It has been suggested that the educational community must include those not usually considered to be at the leading edge of school reform initiatives.In the same vein, but addressing the need for change, Purpel (l972) proposed that the primary responsibility for the childs learning was historically determined by the parent, but as society became more complex, the needs for specialized training grew Finally, as noted earlier, systemic change, as in the form of transitioning educational curriculum, is often a challenge to all concerned and in some cases, may even create a negative, divisive environment. Hargreaves (l995) and Kyriakides (l997) both emphasized the importance of creating coordinated efforts that supported a modification of teachers roles in policy revision as it related to curriculum review and revision.The number of participants and the number/size of school districts were limited and located solely within the Southeastern quadrant of the state of Missouri.While selection of the participants was done by random assignment, final designation of respondents was at the discretion of the building level administrators.Accepting that changing an educational curriculum can be a challenge, the involvement of all stakeholders, especially individuals who are directly involved in student instruction, is an especially vital piece in successful curriculum revision.As in many states during the l990s, educational reform efforts in Missouri addressed educational curriculum revision which had become closely tied to school districtsaccreditation, assessment procedures, and staff evaluation.The single day, or even two or three day training sessions are not effective.The results of this study indicated that combined with number one above, the revision process, training, conversations, and review, must be long-term and periodic.
The results indicated that while information from experts who study curriculum revision extensively is well-received, there must be an internal review process and support system to fully effect the process.
These three elements combine to offer a strong foundation from which educators can begin to address what is taught at all levels, the needs of a respondent society, and the changing roles of classroom practitioners. in many ways, all curriculum design and development is political in nature. Concurring with these views that change was not only necessary but imminent, Scott (l994) declared that curriculum revision projects of the past twenty years had in reality been dismal failures with a high cost to taxpayers, students, and educators.
A traditionally accepted view of educational curriculum states that it (curriculum) is the information which should be taught with the underlying purpose of standardizing the behaviors of the society by educating the young in the traditions and rituals of that culture (Beyer & Liston, l996; Borrowman, l989; Glatthorn, l987; Tanner & Tanner, l995). Monson and Monson (l993) presented the need for collaborative, sanctioned revision by all stakeholders with an emphasis on the performance of teacher leaders.
Pleasing the constituencies, parents, business, and communities, while simultaneously addressing test scores, community values, and student needs, found principals and teachers torn between understanding what to present, how to teach, and when to test.
Test scores did not indicate strong improvement; in fact, in many cases they were considered inadequate or even worse, disastrous. Communities were in uproars about changing what their kids were taught There did not appear to be a correlation between the amount of money spent and success of the curriculum revision projects; nor did there appear to be a relationship to the geographic or economic status of the districts experiencing success.
A total of l47 districts were included in the initial research sample.